The Hausas are one of the major ethnic groups in West Africa and are among the three largest in Nigeria. They can also be found in significant numbers in Niger Republic. They all speak the Hausa language which is the most widely spoken language in West Africa.
Hausa or Haoussa architecture (known as Tubali in the Hausa language) is perhaps one of the most beautiful aspects of Hausa culture, characterized by bright colorful buildings, intricate engraving, high curved walls found throughout the Sahel-geographic band stretching from Senegal and Mauritania in the West to Sudan in the east.
Hausa architecture consists of structures made of adobe. Privacy in Hausa architecture is paramount. Homes are built inside a tall compound wall that provides privacy and security to its inhabitants. Aside from the entryway, openings on the street side are nonexistent or are very small in size and number.
Creative façade designs are important elements in Hausa architecture. Decoration in Hausa traditional architecture can be categorized into three groups namely, surface design, calligraphy, and ornamental. The surface designs are predominantly reliefs, engraved or carved designs, and murals.
Haousa architecture is dependent on the local climate. Housing must be sustainable and protect people from bad weather.